UKK-institute > Research reports (peer-reviewed) > Musculoskeletal examination in young athletes and non-athletes: the finnish health promoting sports club (fhpsc) study (scientific article)


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  • Writer(s): Toivo, K; Kannus, P; Kokko, S; Alanko, L; Heinonen, O; Korpelainen, R; Savonen, K; Selänne, H; Vasankari, T; Kannas, L; Kujala, UM; Villberg, J; Parkkari, J;
  • Publisher: UKK-institute
  • Published: 2018
  • Page count: 9
  • Type: Research reports (peer-reviewed)
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  • Research method: Experimental
  • Language: English
  • Abstract: Objectives To determine the inter-rater repeatability of a musculoskeletal examination and to compare findings between adolescent athletes and non-athletes in Finland. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a musculoskeletal examination assessing posture, mobility and movement control was carried out by a sports and exercise medicine physician on 399 athletes aged 14–17 years and 177 non-athletes. Within 2weeks another sports and exercise medicine physician repeated the examination for 41 adolescents to test the inter-rater repeatability. Results In total, 10 of the 11 tests performed had at least moderate inter-rater reliability (κ ≥0.4 or percentage agreement >80%). Athletes more often than non-athletes had one shoulder protruded (8.0% vs 4.0%, OR 2.81, 95%CI 1.16 to 6.81). Forty-six per cent of athletes had good knee control in the two-legged vertical drop jump test compared with 32% of non-athletes (OR 1.99, 95%CI 1.29 to 3.06). Athletes had better core muscle control with 86.3% being able to remain in the correct plank position for 30 s compared with 68.6% of non-athletes (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.67 to 4.36). In the deep squat test, good lumbar spine control was maintained only by 35.8% of athletes and 38.4% of non-athletes. Conclusion A basic musculoskeletal examination is sufficiently reliable to be performed by trained physicians as a part of a periodic health evaluation. Shortfalls in mobility, posture and movement control are common in both athletes and non-athletes. These deficits could have been caused by sedentary behaviour, monotonous training, or both.

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