- Open full article:
- Writer(s): Ruotsalainen, Ilona;
- Publisher: Jyväskylän yliopiston liikuntabiologia
- Published: 2012
- Type: Seminar assignments
- Research method: Literature review
- Keywords: snowboard cross, parallel slalom, parallel giant slalom, training, periodization,
- Language: Finnish
Snowboarding is a popular recreational sport, but it is also an elite sport. Snowboarding has been an Olympic sport since 1998. There will be five different snowboarding disciplines competed in Winter Olympics in Sochi 2014 (half-pipe, parallel giant slalom, parallel slalom, snowboard cross and slopestyle). Most of the snowboard cross and parallel event competitions are organized by International Ski Federation (FIS). FIS also organizes the World Cup and every second year Snowboard World Championships.
Snowboarding environment is challenging. Riders are frequently exposed to training in cold environments and at high altitudes. Because snowboarding is a technical sport snowboarders spend extensive time on-snow training. Apart from that elite snowboarders need to have a good physical fitness. Snowboarders experiences high ground reaction forces (McAlpine 2010). They also need to have good aerobic fitness, anaerobic capacity as well as good balance and power production capacity (Bakken et al. 2011; Bosco 1997; Creswell & Mitchell 2009; Neumayer et al. 2003; Platzer at al. 2009; Szmedra et al. 2001; Veicsteinas et al. 1984). Also, coaches have to pay attention to injury prevention because snowboarders, especially snowboard cross riders, have high risk of injuries (Flørenes et al. 2012). Annual training plan for snowboarders can be divided into transition, preparation and competition phases. Transition phase refers to time after competition season (competition phase) for athlete to recover physically and psychologically. Purpose of the preparation phase is to build up good fitness base for the competition season. Many kinds of strategies are used when planning training for an athlete. Linear and non-linear periodizations are both in use. It depends on the individual athlete what kind of training program should be planned. It is very important to individualize programs according athletes’ needs.